ࡱ> y bjbj >{{p"HH8,N!$T#&^!}}}}}}};^}!0N!}d&"d&}d&}P}^N!d&H h:  B T PHP B CNG AN V PH BIN, GIO DC PHP LUT V PHP CH  CNG GII THIU LUT AN NINH QUC GIA ----------------- I. S cn thit phi xy dng Lut An ninh quc gia Xy dng v bo v T quc l hai nhim v chin lc ca cch mng Vit Nam. Nhim v xy dng t nc i hi phi lun kt hp cht ch vi nhim v bo v T quc; nhng thnh tu m nhn dn ta ginh c trong s nghip xy dng t nc lun gn vi nhng thnh tu t c trong s nghip bo v T quc. L mt l)nh vc rng ln trong ton b cng cuc bo v T quc Vit Nam x hi ch ngh)a, an ninh quc gia c tm quan trng c bit i vi s tn ti v pht trin ca t nc, quan h ti cc li ch sng ca quc gia v ca dn tc, ti cc chnh sch i ni, i ngoi ca ng v Nh nc ta. Bo v an ninh quc gia l nhim v ca ton ng, ton quc, ton dn, cc ngnh, cc cp v ca ton x hi, cn c t chc, phi kt hp thng nht nhm pht huy sc mnh tng hp ca c h thng chnh tr v ch  x hi ch ngh)a. Song, do nhiu nguyn nhn khc nhau nn yu cu bo v an ninh quc gia c ni, c lc khng c qun trit mt cch y  hoc khng c t chc, qun l, ch o, iu hnh tp trung thng nht nn  dn n tnh trng chia ct, chng cho... lm hn ch nhiu n hiu qu cng tcbo v an ninh quc gia. Mt khc, do yu cu xy dng Nh nc php quyn Vit Nam x hi ch ngh)a, tng cng php ch x hi ch ngh)a trong iu kin mi ca t nc v thc tin cng cuc xy dng v bo v T quc trong tnh hnh hin nay  t ra nhng vn  mi v an ninh quc gia; song, cc quy nh ca php lut hin hnh cn phn tn, cha y  hoc khng cn ph hp, khng p ng yu cu thc tin. Do , cn c mt vn bn quy phm php lut c hiu lc cao,  l Lut An ninh quc gia, nhm xc nh r cc nguyn tc, chnh sch, bin php bo v an ninh quc gia, trch nhim qun l nh nc v bo v an ninh quc gia, ngh)a v, quyn hn, trch nhim ca cc c quan, t chc, ca cc ngnh, cc cp v ca mi cng dn trong cng cuc bo v an ninh quc gia. Thc hin Ngh quyt s 19/1998/QH10 ngy 02/12/1998 ca Quc hi (kha X) k hp th t v Chng trnh xy dng Lut, Php lnh nhim k Quc hi kha X, U ban Thng v Quc hi  ra Ngh quyt s 76/1999/NQ-UBTVQH10 phn cng B Cng an ch tr phi hp vi cc c quan c lin quan son tho D n Lut An ninh quc gia  trnh Quc hi xem xt, thng qua. Cn c vo cc Ngh quyt nu trn, ngy 03/6/1999, B trng B Cng an ra quyt nh thnh lp Ban son tho D n Lut An ninh quc gia, gm i din lnh o B Cng an, B Ngoi giao, B Quc phng, B T php  t chc v tin hnh xy dng o lut quan trng ny. Ti k hp th 5 Quc hi kha XI (thng 4/2004), trn c s T trnh ca Chnh ph, Bo co thm tra ca U ban quc phng v an ninh, cc i biu Quc hi  tho lun cho kin v d tho Lut An ninh quc gia. Thng 8/2004, U ban Thng v Quc hi t chc hi ngh ly kin cc i biu Quc hi chuyn trch v cc d n lut, trong  c d n Lut An ninh quc gia. a s kin ca cc i biu Quc hi c bn nht tr vi nhng ni dung ca d tho Lut; tn thnh v s cn thit v  ngh ban hnh Lut ny vo thi im hin nay l thch hp. Ngy 3/12/2004, Lut An ninh quc gia  c Quc hi nc cng ho XHCN Vit Nam kha XI, k hp th 6 thng qua. II. Cc Quan im ch o  c qun trit trong Lut Mc ch xy dng Lut An ninh quc gia l to ra cng c php l c hiu lc  huy ng sc mnh tng hp ca c h thng chnh tr v ton x hi vo vic bo v an ninh quc gia ca nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam trong tnh hnh mi. V vy, quan im ch o  c qun trit trong Lut An ninh quc gia l: 1. Th ch ca nhng quan im, ng li, chnh sch ca ng Cng sn Vit Nam v bo v an ninh quc gia; pht huy truyn thng yu nc, tinh thn c lp dn tc, bo v thnh qu cch mng v ch  x hi ch ngh)a, ph hp vi thc tin Vit Nam trong cng cuc i mi, y mnh cng nghip ha, hin i ca t nc. 2. Xc nh nhng nguyn tc php l; quy nh r, c th quyn, ngh)a v, trch nhim bo v an ninh quc gia khng ch i vi c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia m cn i vi tt c cc c quan, t chc v mi cng dn. 3. K tha c nhng kinh nghim qu bu ca ng, Nh nc v nhn dn ta trong s nghip bo v an ninh quc gia t ngy thnh lp nc n nay; tip thu c chn lc kinh nghim lp php v t chc thc hin php lut ca quc t trong l)nh vc ny. III. C cu, ni dung ca Lut Lut bao gm 5 chng vi 36 iu, c th l: Chng I. Nhng quy nh chung Chng ny c 13 iu, t iu 1 n iu 13, quy nh phm vi iu chnh, i tng p dng ca Lut; chnh sch ca Nh nc v an ninh quc gia; nguyn tc hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia; xy dng lc lng v bo m iu kin cho hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia; trch nhim, ngh)a v, ch , chnh sch i vi c quan, t chc, c nhn trong hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia; tuyn truyn, gio dc bo v an ninh quc gia; hp tcquc t trong l)nh vc bo v an ninh quc gia; cc hnh vi b nghim cm v chnh sch x l cc hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia. Chng II. Bo v an ninh quc gia Chng ny c 8 iu, t iu 14 n iu 21, quy nh v nhim v bo v an ninh quc gia; cc bin php c bn bo v an ninh quc gia; xy dng nn an ninh nhn dn v th trn an ninh nhn dn; quyn, ngh)a v, trch nhim ca cng dn, c quan, t chc, Mt trn T quc Vit Nam v cc t chc thnh vin trong bo v an ninh quc gia; bo v an ninh quc gia khi c tnh trng khn cp, tnh trng chin tranh; p dng mt s bin php cn thit khi c nguy c e do an ninh quc gia nhng cha n mc ban b tnh trng khn cp. Chng III. C quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia Chng ny c 7 iu, t iu 22 n iu 28, quy nh cc c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia; nhim v, quyn hn, trch nhim ca cc c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia cing nh quyn hn, trch nhim ca cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia; trang b v s dng vi kh, phng tin k thut nghip v, cng c h tr ca cn b, chin s) c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia; ch  qun l thng tin, ti liu,  vt v bo v an ninh quc gia v ch , chnh sch i vi cn b, chin s) c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia. Chng IV. Qun l nh nc v an ninh quc gia Chng ny c 6 iu, t iu 29 n iu 34, quy nh ni dung qun l nh nc v an ninh quc gia; thng nht qun l nh nc v an ninh quc gia; trch nhim ca B Quc phng, B Ngoi giao v ca cc B, c quan ngang B, U ban nhn dn cc cp trong qun l nh nc v an ninh quc gia. Chng V. iu khon thi hnh Chng ny c 2 iu (iu 35 v iu 36), quy nh hiu lc ca Lut (Lut ny c hiu lc thi hnh t ngy 01/7/2005) v giao Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh Lut ny. IV. Mt s vn  c th cn lu trong Lut an ninh quc gia 1. V tn gi ca Lut Lut ny c thng qua vi tn gi l  Lut An ninh quc gia . Tn gi ny bao hm c vic bo v v xy dng tim lc an ninh quc gia, ph hp vi tn gi  c xc nh trong Ngh quyt ca Quc hi v chng trnh xy dng lut, php lnh nhim k kha XI. ng thi, trong Lut ny c cc quy nh v chnh sch ca Nh nc i vi l)nh vc an ninh quc gia, v xy dng nn an ninh nhn dn, chnh sch x l cc hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia, xy dng lc lng bo v an ninh quc gia, v bo m cc iu kin cho hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia... V vy, tuy c nhiu quy nh v bo v an ninh quc gia, song tn gi ca Lut l  Lut An ninh quc gia l hp l. 2. V phm vi iu chnh ca Lut Ti iu 1  quy nh r v phm vi iu chnh ca Lut An ninh quc gia nh sau:  Lut ny quy nh v chnh sch an ninh quc gia; nguyn tc, nhim v, bin php bo v an ninh quc gia; quyn, ngh)a v, trch nhim ca c quan, t chc, cng dn trong bo v an ninh quc gia . y l quy nh c tnh khi qut cao, khng nu c th an ninh quc gia bao gm an ninh trong cc l)nh vc ca i sng x hi nh chnh tr, kinh t, vn ha, x hi, khoa hc, cng ngh, i ngoi... Bi v, nu quy nh c th nh vy th kh c th quy nh ht cc l)nh vc trong an ninh quc gia v khng trnh khi c s trng lp vi quy nh ca cc vn bn quy phm php lut khc. Hn na, khi nim an ninh quc gia gii thch ti khon 1 iu 3 ca Lut  khi qut y  cc l)nh vc ca i sng x hi. Cn lu l, theo ngh)a rng th an ninh quc gia bao gm c l)nh vc quc phng, chng chin tranh xm lc; song, cn c vo Chng IV (Bo v T quc Vit Nam x hi ch ngh)a) ca Hin php nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam nm 1992  c sa i, b sung theo Ngh quyt s 51/2001/QH10 ngy 25/12/2001 ca Quc hi kha X, k hp th 10, th bo v an ninh quc gia v quc phng tuy c quan h cht ch nhng l hai l)nh vc khc nhau trong tng th cng cuc bo v T quc. V vy, phm vi iu chnh ca Lut An ninh quc gia khng bao gm l)nh vc quc phng, chng chin tranh xm lc v phn bit hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia vi quc phng. Nhng vn  v quc phng nh t chc v hot ng ca lc lng quc phng th s do Lut Quc phng quy nh. 3. Gii thch t ng (iu 3) iu 3 c 10 khon, gii thch cc t ng:  An ninh quc gia ,  Bo v an ninh quc gia ,  Hot ng xm phm an ninh quc gia ,  Nguy c e do an ninh quc gia ,  C quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia ,  Cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia ,  Bin php nghip v ,  Mc tiu quan trng v an ninh quc gia ,  Nn an ninh nhn dn ,  Th trn an ninh nhn dn . Ni dung khi nim  An ninh quc gia l s n nh, pht trin bn vng ca ch  x hi ch ngh)a v Nh nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam, s bt kh xm phm c lp, ch quyn, thng nht ton vn lnh th ca T quc cing bao hm c vn  an ton cho cng ng dn c ni chung, cho mi c nhn ni ring. Theo , vic bo m an ton cho mi c nhn c quy nh ti khon 2 iu 14 ca Lut v cing  c quy nh trong nhiu vn bn php lut hin hnh khc. Cm t  s bt kh xm phm c lp, ch quyn, thng nht, ton vn lnh th ca T quc l ni dung khng th thiu ca khi nim  an ninh quc gia , quan h trc tip n s tn ti vng chc ca ch  x hi v cc li ch quc gia. Trong B lut hnh s nm 1999 quy nh hnh vi xm phm lnh th l ti xm phm an ninh quc gia (iu 81). Vic gii thch khi nim  an ninh quc gia l cn thit nhm bo m cch hiu thng nht trong Lut ny. Vic quy nh ni dung ny cing khng lm nh hng n cc lut khc, bi l lnh th ca T quc ng thi c th l i tng bo v ca nhiu o lut khc nhau nh Lut An ninh quc gia, Lut Quc phng, Lut Bin gii quc gia...  Ch  kinh t v  ch  chnh tr tuy c mi quan h hu c vi nhau, nhng khng hon ton ng nht. Trong Hin php nm 1992 cing  quy nh cc ni dung ny ti hai chng ring (Chng I - Ch  chnh tr, Chng II - Ch  kinh t). Tng t nh vy, ni dung  nn vn ho c quy nh trong Chng III ca Hin php. V vy, khon 3 iu 3 quy nh:  Hot ng xm phm an ninh quc gia l nhng hnh vi xm phm ch  chnh tr, ch  kinh t, nn vn ha, an ninh, quc phng, i ngoi, c lp, ch quyn, thng nht, ton vn lnh th ca nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam l xc nh r v c th nhng khch th cn c Lut ny bo v. Quy nh ny cing ph hp vi quy nh ti iu 8 ca B lut hnh s nm 1999. Khon 6 iu 3 quy nh  Cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia l cc s) quan, h s) quan ca c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia&  , y l nhng cn b c giao nhng thm quyn lin quan trc tip n quyn t do dn ch ca cng dn quy nh ti khon 1 iu 25, do  khng cho php m rng n quc nhn chuyn nghip v chin s). 4. V nguyn tc hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 5) iu 5  quy nh 4 nguyn tc quan trng trong hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia; trong , nguyn tc  Tun th Hin php, php lut, bo m li ch ca Nh nc, quyn v li ch hp php ca t chc, c nhn l nguyn tc c t ln hng u, nht l trong iu kin hin nay chng ta ang tin hnh xy dng Nh nc php quyn Vit Nam x hi ch ngh)a ca nhn dn, do nhn dn v v nhn dn. 5. Tuyn truyn, gio dc bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 10) iu 10 quy nh trch nhim t chc, ch o cng tctuyn truyn, gio dc bo v an ninh quc gia ca Chnh ph, cc b, c quan ngang b, c quan thuc Chnh ph v U ban nhn dn cc cp; trch nhim t chc tuyn truyn, ph bin php lut v nng cao thc bo v an ninh quc gia cho ton dn ca c quan thng tin, tuyn truyn; trch nhim ca c quan, t chc trong vic tuyn truyn, gio dc, vn ng cng dn Vit Nam, ngi Vit Nam nh c  nc ngoi bo v an ninh quc gia. Khon 4 iu 10  quy nh mt ni dung quan trng,  l:  Gio dc bo v an ninh quc gia l mt ni dung gio dc quc dn. C quan qun l nh nc v gio dc v o to c trch nhim a ni dung gio dc bo v an ninh quc gia vo chng trnh dy hc trong nh trng v cc c s gio dc khc ph hp vi ngnh hc, cp hc . Ni dung v i tng iu chnh ti iu 10 v iu 19 (Trch nhim ca Mt trn T quc Vit Nam v cc t chc thnh vin trong bo v an ninh quc gia) l khc nhau. iu 10 quy nh v trch nhim ca cc c quan, t chc trong vic tuyn truyn, gio dc bo v an ninh quc gia; cn iu 19 quy nh c th trch nhim ca Mt trn T quc Vit Nam v cc t chc thnh vin trong bo v an ninh quc gia. Khon 3 iu 10 quy nh cc c quan, t chc ca Vit Nam trong phm vi nhim v, quyn hn ca mnh c trch nhim tuyn truyn, gio dc, vn ng cng dn Vit Nam v ngi Vit Nam nh c  nc ngoi bo v an ninh quc gia ca Vit Nam. 6. Chnh sch x l cc hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia (iu 12) Vic xc nh ng chnh sch ca Nh nc ta trong x l cc hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia c ngh)a quan trng i vi cng tc u tranh bo v an ninh quc gia, nhm lm phn ca hng ngi cc phn t (v* .     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Theo , ti iu 12  quy nh r: Mi hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia u phi b x l nghim minh, kp thi theo ng quy nh ca php lut. Ngi ch mu, cm u, ch huy, ngoan c chng i th b nghim tr; ngi b p buc, la gt, d d nhn lm vic cho t chc, c nhn  hot ng xm phm an ninh quc gia m t th, thnh khn khai bo th c khoan hng; nu lp cng th c khen thng; ngi nc ngoi c hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia ca Vit Nam  ngoi lnh th Vit Nam c th b x l theo php lut ca nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam trong trng hp iu c quc t m Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam k kt hoc gia nhp c quy nh. Cn lu l, ni dung iu c quc t v hnh s m Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam  k kt hoc gia nhp c th dn chiu quy nh ca php lut Vit Nam v cing c th dn chiu quy nh ca php lut nc khc  truy cu trch nhim hnh s ca mt ngi c hnh vi phm ti nht nh. Mt khc, ti khon 2 iu 6 ca B lut hnh s nm 1999 cing quy nh:  Ngi nc ngoi phm ti  ngoi lnh th nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam, c th b truy cu trch nhim hnh s theo B lut hnh s Vit Nam trong nhng trng hp c quy nh trong cc iu c quc t m nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam k kt hoc tham gia . Do , nu khng nh phi x l ngi nc ngoi c hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia ca Vit Nam  ngoi lnhth Vit Nam theo php lut ca nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam th c th khng ph hp trong nhng trng hp c th. V vy, khon 3 iu 12 ca Lut ny l quy phm c tnh hng dn  x l trng hp ngi nc ngoi c hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia ca Vit Nam  ngoi lnh th Vit Nam. 7. V cc hnh vi b nghim cm (iu 13) iu 13 c 7 khon, quy nh cc hnh vi b nghim cm, ch yu l cc hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia. Cc hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia theo quy nh ca php lut hin hnh rt nhiu, nu thu ht ht vo Lut An ninh quc gia s dn ti tnh trng trng lp khng cn thit. V vy, Lut c xy dng theo hng ch quy nh cc hnh vi xm phm an ninh quc gia c tnh cht in hnh v xc nh cc hnh vi khc xm phm an ninh quc gia  c quy nh trong B lut hnh s v cc vn bn quy phm php lut c lin quan. 8. V nhim v bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 14) iu 14 quy nh 5 nhim v bo v an ninh quc gia; trong , bo v ch  chnh tr v Nh nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam, bo v c lp, ch quyn, thng nht, ton vn lnh th ca T quc l nhim v hng u, quan trng nht nn c quy nh ti khon 1. Lut   on  c lp, ch quyn, thng nht, ton vn lnhth sau on  ch  chnh tr v Nh nc Cng ho x hi ch ngh)a Vit Nam l  xc nh v phn bit l)nh vc an ninh quc gia vi l)nh vc quc phng. Cch th hin ny l thng nht vi khi nim an ninh quc gia ti khon 1 iu 3. L)nh vc t tng, vn ho v l)nh vc chnh tr c mi quan h vi nhau nhng l hai l)nh vc khc nhau. Hin php nm 1992  quy nh hai ni dung trn ti hai chng ring bit (Chng I v Chng III). V vy, Lut quy nh theo hng tch ring nhim v bo v an ninh v t tng v vn cavi nhim v bo v ch  chnh tr. 9. V cc bin php c bn bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 15) iu 15 quy nh cc bin php c bn bo v an ninh quc gia bao gm vn ng qun chng, php lut, ngoi giao, kinh t, khoa hc - k thut, nghip v, vi trang. Lut c quy nh ny  cc c quan chc nng p dng khi thc thi nhim v, nhng ch quy nh c tnh nguyn tc  bo m b mt, cn ni dung, thm quyn, th tc p dng cc bin php ny  c quy nh trong mt s vn bn quy phm php lut hin hnh v trng hp cha c th s c quy nh c th trong cc vn bn hng dn thi hnh Lut. Thc cht cc bin php c bn bo v an ninh quc gia  c quy nh trong Lut u mang yu t chnh tr, c ni dung chnh tr, nhm mc ch chnh tr. V vy, c th hiu theo ngh)a rng  l cc bin php u tranh chnh tr. 10. V th trn an ninh nhn dn Lut ch quy nh khi qut v  th trn an ninh nhn dn , V vic b tr th trn an ninh nhn dn l mt ni dung c tnh cht nghip v khng quy nh c th trong Lut. Lut quy nh v  th trn an ninh nhn dn cng vi quy nh v xy dng nn an ninh nhn dn l  ph hp vi quy nh ca Hin php nm 1992. Ni dung c th v  th trn an ninh nhn dn s do vn bn hng dn Lut quy nh. 11. V quyn v ngh)a v ca cng dn trong bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 17) iu 17 quy nh 6 nhm quyn ng thi l ngh)a v ca cng dn trong bo v an ninh quc gia; bi v, iu 77 ca Hin php nm 1992 quy nh  Bo v T quc l ngh)a v thing ling v quyn cao qu ca cng dn nn kh c th tch ring quyn vi ngh)a v.  tn iu, Lut khng dng cm t  trch nhim v ngh)a v hoc t  trch nhim  ph hp vi quy nh trn ca Hin php. 12. Trch nhim ca c quan, t chc trong bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 18) iu 18 quy nh 5 nhm trch nhim ca c quan, t chc trong bo v an ninh quc gia, trong  khon 4 quy nh:  pht hin, cung cp kp thi thng tin, ti liu lin quan n hot ng xm phm an ninh quc gia cho c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia hoc chnh quyn ni gn nht . Lut khng s dng cm t  ng s tht  khon 4 (pht hin, cung cp kp thi, ng s tht thng tin, ti liu...). V nu bt buc phi cung cp tin  ng s tht l khng thc t v hn ch kh nng cung cp thng tin ca c quan, t chc. Mt khc, vic lm r ng s tht hay khng l trch nhim ca c quan chc nng. Quy nh ti khon 5 iu 18 (Thc hin yu cu ca c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia theo quy nh ca php lut) l nhm to iu kin thun li cho c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia thc thi nhim v ca mnh v thc tin cng tcbo v an ninh quc gia nhiu nm qua  chng minh quy nh nh vy l cn thit. 13. Trch nhim ca Mt trn T quc Vit Nam v cc t chc thnh vin trong bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 19) Quy nh ti iu 19 l quy nh c tnh c th cho ring Mt trn T quc Vit Nam v cc t chc thnh vin trong bo v an ninh quc gia. Bn cnh , Mt trn T quc Vit Nam v cc t chc thnh vin cn c cc trch nhim khc  c quy nh ti iu 18 (Trch nhim ca c quan, t chc trong bo v an ninh quc gia). 14. p dng mt s bin php cn thit khi c nguy c e do an ninh quc gia nhng cha n mc ban b tnh trng khn cp (iu 21) Lut quy nh c th v mt s bin php cn thit khi c nguy c e do an ninh quc gia nhng cha n mc ban b tnh trng khn cp  to c s php l cn thit cho vic tin hnh cc hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia, trnh lm dng khi p dngcc bin php ny trong thc t. y l nhng bin php c quan h nhiu n quyn t do dn ch nn Lut ch giao thm quyn p dng cc bin php  cho Th tng Chnh ph, m khng giao cho ngi ng u cc B, ngnh, a phng c lin quan. 15. Cc c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 22) Khon 1 iu 22 quy nh cc c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia bao gm c quan ch o, ch huy v cc n v an ninh, tnh bo, cnh v Cng an nhn dn; c quan ch o, ch huy v cc n v bo v an ninh quc i, tnh bo Quc i nhn dn. Bn cnh , Lut quy nh B i bin phng, cnh st bin l c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia  khu vc bin gii trn t lin v khu vc bin gii trn bin. Lut khng quy nh  lc lng an ninh hng khng l c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia v  lc lng an ninh hng khng ch l lc lng bo v an ton ca ngnh hng khng. 16. Quyn hn, trch nhim ca c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 24) Xut pht t thc tin cng tc u tranh bo v an ninh quc gia nhiu nm qua, Lut An ninh quc gia  quy nh cc quyn hn quan trng cho c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia (khon 1 iu 24). Tuy nhin, cc quyn hn  lin quan n cc quyn v li ch c bn ca con ngi; V vy,  trnh vi phm, ti khon 2 iu ny quy nh:  Th trng c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia quyt nh vic s dng cc quyn hn quy nh ti khon 1 iu ny theo th tc, thm quyn do Chnh ph quy nh v chu trch nhim trc php lut v cc quyt nh ca mnh . Ngi c thm quyn quy nh ti im b khon 3 c hiu l ngi c thm quyn ra quyt nh thc hin cc quyn hn c quy nh ti khon 1 iu ny. Cc thm quyn c th s c quy nh trong cc ngh nh ca Chnh ph. Trong thc t, ngi c thm quyn c th l cp trn trc tip, thm ch trn nhiu cp ty thuc vo tng nhim v v tnh hung c th. 17. Quyn hn, trch nhim ca cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 25) iu 25 Lut An ninh quc gia  giao cc quyn hn quan trng cho cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia  to thun li cho cc cn b ny thc thi nhim v ca mnh. im d, khon 1 quy nh  cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia trong khi thc hin nhim v c quyn xut trnh giy chng minh an ninh trong trng hp cn thit  yu cu c quan, t chc, c nhn gip  . Lut khng s dng cm t  giy c bit hoc  giy u tin m s dng cm t  giy chng minh an ninh c gi tr chng minh nhn thn ca cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia khi cn s gip  ca c quan, t chc v cng dn trong khi thi hnh cng v, ch khng c ga tr  thc hin cc quyn nng khc. Khon 3 iu 25 quy nh r trch nhim ca cn b ny l  chp hnh nghim chnh php lut ca nh nc, cc quy tc nghip v chuyn mn, k lut ca lc lng vi trang nhn dn v chu trch nhim trc php lut v nhng vic lm ca mnh . 18. Ch  chnh sch i vi cn b, chin s) c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia (iu 28) Theo quy nh ti khon 11 iu 84 ca Hin php nm 1992 th ch c Quc hi mi c nhim v, quyn hn quy nh hm, cp trong cc lc lng vi trang nhn dn. Do , Lut An ninh quc gia cn quy nh ch  chnh sch i vi cn b, chin s) c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia, nht l v hm, cp ca s) quan, h s) quan, chin s) c quan ny. Lut ny  quy nh v ch , chnh sch i vi cn b, chin s) c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia ti iu 28. Quy nh ny l cn thit nhm th hin chnh sch nht qun ca ng v Nh nc ta i vi lc lng chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia mc d  c Lut s) quan Quc i nhn dn Vit Nam, Php lnh v lc lng An ninh nhn dn Vit Nam iu chnh. Cn phn bit iu 28 v iu 9 (Ch , chnh sch i vi c quan, t chc, c nhn trong hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia) v iu 9 quy nh ch , chnh sch chung cho mi i tng tham gia bo v an ninh quc gia nn   Chng I l ph hp. Cn iu 28 th quy nh ring v ch , chnh sch c th cho cn b, chin s) c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia. Cm t  c tuyn chn, bi dng, o to c s dng ti iu 28 V ch  chnh sch i vi cn b, chin s) c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia bao hm c vic tuyn chn, bi dng v o to. 19. Qun l nh nc v an ninh quc gia Chnh ph thng nht qun l nh nc v bo v an ninh quc gia. B cng an chu trch nhim trc Chnh ph ch tr, phi hp vi B Quc phng, B Ngoi giao, cc b, c quan ngang b thc hin qun l nh nc v bo v an ninh quc gia. C kin cho rng, bo v an ninh quc gia l vn  h trng, lin quan n s sng cn ca ch , do vy cn phi c qun l, iu hnh tp trung thng nht t trung ng n a phng; song, Lut khng giao cho Hi ng quc phng v an ninh m nhim vic thng nht qun l l)nh vc ny V Hi ng quc phng v an ninh l c quan c nhim v, quyn hn do Hin php quy nh, nhng khng phi l c quan qun l nh nc nn nu giao cho c quan ny nhim v  th khng ph hp. Tuy nhin, iu 20 cing  quy nh v bo v an ninh quc gia khi c tnh trng khn cp, tnh trng chin tranh, trong   Hi ng quc phng v an ninh c trch nhim ng vin mi lc lng v kh nng ca t nc  bo v T quc; thc hin nhng nhim v v quyn hn c bit do Quc hi giao l  ph hp vi iu 104 ca Hin php nm 1992. V. T chc thc hin Lut An ninh quc gia s c hiu lc thi hnh t ngy 01 thng 7 nm 2005.V vy, ngay sau khi lut c cng b, B Cng an c trch nhim trin khai k hoch phi hp vi cc c quan hu quan  son tho, trnh cp c thm quyn ban hnh cc vn bn quy phm php lut hng dn thi hnh Lut An ninh quc gia. Trc mt, cc c quan hu quan s tp trung xy dng mt s vn bn quy phm php lut v t chc trin khai thi hnh Lut An ninh quc gia; v quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca Lut An ninh quc gia; v th tc, thm quyn quyt nh v thc hin cc quyn hn ca c quan chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia v cn b chuyn trch bo v an ninh quc gia; v gio dc bo v an ninh quc gia trong h thng gio dc quc dn; v khen thng i vi c quan, t chc, c nhn c thnh tch trong hot ng bo v an ninh quc gia; v khi phc danh d, n b, tr cp cho c quan, t chc, c nhn b thit hi do tham gia bo v an ninh quc gia. ng thi, cn t chc r sot li cc vn bn quy phm php lut v bo v an ninh quc gia hin hnh v cc vn bn khc c lin quan   ngh cp c thm quyn sa i, b sung cho ph hp vi Lut An ninh quc gia. Song song vi vic son tho  ban hnh cc vn bn hng dn lut, B Cng an c chng trnh ph bin lut An ninh quc gia, phi hp vi cc c quan, t chc hu quan c bit l cc phng tin thng tin i chng, t chc tp hun tuyn truyn ph bin kp thi, su rng lut n cn b, cng chc v ton th nhn dn  mi ngi hiu c ngh)a v, quyn hn, trch nhim ca mnh trong cng cuc bo v an ninh quc gia. ------------------------------------     PAGE 14 XZ\^~ҚPh0̡Ρ>ңԣDF8rܼܨ͙͙͇uܼc͙͙T͙h8<hV\CJaJmHsH"h8<h #65CJ\aJmHsH"h8<ht6CJ]aJmHsH"h8<h #66CJ]aJmHsHh8<htCJaJmHsH&h8<h #65@CJ\aJmHsH h8<ht@CJaJmHsHh8<h #6CJaJmHsH h8<h #6@CJaJmHsH#h8<h #6@CJaJhmHsH rvxҦԦ֦LNzȪX:BDNr"&(d߿ߊxfUf h8<h #6@CJaJmHsH#h8<h #6@CJaJhmHsH#h8<ht@CJaJhmHsHh8<h #6CJaJhmHsH h8<ht@CJaJmHsH&h8<h #66@CJ]aJmHsH h8<h #6@CJaJmHsHh8<htCJaJmHsHh8<h #6CJaJmHsH"h8<h #65CJ\aJmHsH!dfh&(ƱVƴдش &,JNVBtƷd.2:<Fprοοΰ}}}}}h8<hV\CJaJmHsH"h8<h-6CJ]aJmHsH"h8<h-5CJ\aJmHsHh8<h-CJaJmHsHh8<htCJaJmHsHh8<h #6CJaJmHsH#h8<h #6@CJaJhmHsH h8<h #6@CJaJmHsH1n 08V.z~yhyWy h8<hV\@CJaJmHsH h8<ht@CJaJmHsH h8<h-@CJaJmHsHh8<hV\CJaJmHsH h8<h-@CJaJmHsH&h8<h-6@CJ]aJmHsHh8<htCJaJmHsH"h8<h-5CJ\aJmHsH"h8<h-6CJ]aJmHsHh8<h-CJaJmHsH "$02$(*VlntvƷƥƷƷrrrrr``Ʒ"h8<h-6CJ]aJmHsH#h8<hV\@CJaJhmHsH#h8<h-@CJaJhmHsHh8<hV\CJaJmHsH"h8<hV\5CJ\aJmHsHh8<h-CJaJmHsH"h8<h-5CJ\aJmHsH#h8<h-@CJaJhmHsH)h8<h-6@CJ]aJhmHsH%nFvplP@DF $dP`a$$dPx^`a$dP $dPx`a$$dPx1$`a$Z\48F:>JRX2X\о񭜭оооо|||о"h8<h-5CJ\aJmHsHh8<h-5\mHsH h8<hV\@CJaJmHsH h8<h-@CJaJmHsH"h8<hV\6CJ]aJmHsH"h8<h-6CJ]aJmHsHh8<hV\CJaJmHsHh8<h-CJaJmHsH0ptv46R~lPV4>\`z&pt߭ߝ߉ߝqf[f[f[h8<hV\mHsHh8<h-mHsH.h8<h-5CJOJQJ\^JaJmHsH&h8<h-6@CJ]aJmHsHh8<h-CJaJhmHsH&h8<h-5@CJ\aJmHsHh8<htCJaJmHsHh8<hV\CJaJmHsHh8<h-CJaJmHsH"h8<h-6CJ]aJmHsH#$&fjDF@BFHLNRTXZ\^`lnrtvxz|~޼ޗޗh8<h8<mHsHhv0JmHnHsHuh8<h-0JmHsH!jh8<h-0JUmHsH h8<h-0JCJaJmHsHhdjhdUh8<hV\mHsHh8<h-mHsH%FJLPRVXZ\^vxz|~ $dP`a$  &` $&`a$< 00P&P . 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